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2019-06-23   星期日   農歷五月廿一   夏至
【譯介】尼杰莫克羅,達爾馬提亞內陸地區的無聲圓圈舞+雪星基督圣殿朝圣
來源:中國非物質文化遺產網 作者:中國非物質文化遺產保護中心 創建時間:2019-05-22 09:27:00

編者按:“中國非物質文化遺產保護中心”微信公眾號將在以往譯介工作基礎上,繼續開展對聯合國教科文組織相關非遺名錄項目內容的翻譯介紹,每期更新兩個項目。本專題項目簡介譯文僅供廣大讀者參考使用,不妥之處,歡迎留言指正。

譯介項目二十一

尼杰莫克羅,達爾馬提亞內陸地區的無聲圓圈舞

Nijemo Kolo, silent circle dance of the Dalmatian hinterland


圖1 尼杰莫克羅,達爾馬提亞內陸地區的無聲圓圈舞

項目基本信息

入選年份:2011

申報國家:克羅地亞共和國

名錄名冊類型:人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄

圖2 尼杰莫克羅,達爾馬提亞內陸地區的無聲圓圈舞

英文簡介

The Nijemo Kolo is practised by communities in the Dalmatian hinterland, in southern Croatia. Nijemo Kolo is performed in a closed circle with male dancers leading female partners in energetic, spontaneous steps – the male dancer publicly testing the skills of his female partner, seemingly without defined rules. The steps and figures, often vigorous and impressive, depend on the mood and desire of the participants. The defining feature of the silent circle dance is that it is performed exclusively without music, although vocal or instrumental performances may precede or follow the dance. Nijemo Kolo is traditionally performed at carnivals, fairs, feast days and weddings, and acts as a way for young women and men to meet and get to know each other. Differences in the performance of the Nijemo Kolo from one village to another are also a way for the residents to distinguish their identities. The dance is transmitted from generation to generation, although increasingly this occurs through cultural clubs where its movements have been standardized. Some villages of the Dalmatian hinterland, however, preserve the spontaneous performance of steps and figures. Today, Nijemo Kolo is mostly danced by village performing groups at local, regional or international festivals and at local shows, carnivals or on the saint days of their parish church.

圖3 尼杰莫克羅,達爾馬提亞內陸地區的無聲圓圈舞

中文簡介

尼杰莫克羅(“Nijemo Kolo”音譯)流傳于克羅地亞南部達爾馬提亞內陸社區。男舞者用充滿活力、即興自發的舞步帶領著女舞伴圍成封閉式的環狀隊形。男舞者公開測試女舞伴的舞蹈技巧,似乎并沒有明確的規則。舞者的舞步和姿態往往充滿活力,具有很強的感染力,這取決于參與者的心情和愿望。無聲圓圈舞的關鍵特征是它在完全無音樂的條件下進行表演,雖然舞蹈表演前后可能有聲樂或器樂表演。該舞蹈傳統上是在嘉年華、集市、宗教節日和婚禮上表演,是年輕男女認識和了解對方的一種方式。不同村莊表演該舞蹈的差異也是區分居民身份的一種途徑。此舞蹈代代相傳,雖然越來越多是通過文化俱樂部傳承,在那里,舞蹈動作已被標準化。然而,達爾馬提亞內陸的一些村莊保留了即興表演的舞步和姿態。現今,尼杰莫克羅主要由鄉村表演團體在地方、區域或國際節日,以及地方演出、嘉年華或教區教堂圣日時進行表演。


譯介項目二十二

雪星基督圣殿朝圣

Pilgrimage to the sanctuary of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i

圖4 雪星基督圣殿朝圣

項目基本信息

入選年份:2011

申報國家:秘魯共和國

名錄名冊類型:人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄

圖5 雪星基督圣殿朝圣

英文簡介

The Pilgrimage to the sanctuary of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i combines elements from Catholicism and worship of pre-Hispanic nature deities. It begins fifty-eight days after the Christian celebration of Easter Sunday, when 90,000 people from around Cusco travel to the sanctuary, located in Sinakara hollow. Pilgrims are divided into eight ‘nations’ corresponding to their villages of origin: Paucartambo, Quispicanchi, Canchis, Acomayo, Paruro, Tawantinsuyo, Anta and Urubamba. The pilgrimage includes processions of crosses up and down the snow-capped mountain and a twenty-four hour procession, during which the Paucartambo and Quispicanchi nations carry images of the Lord of Tayancani and the Grieving Virgin to the village of Tayancani to greet the first rays of sunlight. Dance plays a central part in the pilgrimage: a hundred different dances are performed representing the different ‘nations’. The Council of Pilgrim Nations and the Brotherhood of the Lord of Qoyllurit’i direct the pilgrimage activities, its rules and codes of behaviour, and supply food, while pablitos or pabluchas, figures wearing garments of alpaca fibre and woven wool animal masks, maintain order. The pilgrimage encompasses a broad variety of cultural expressions and constitutes a meeting place for communities from different Andean altitudes engaged in different economic activities.

圖6 雪星基督圣殿朝圣

中文簡介

雪星基督圣殿的朝圣結合了天主教元素和前西班牙自然神的崇拜。它于基督教復活節慶祝活動58天后舉行,那時來自庫斯科周邊的9萬人前往位于錫納卡拉山谷的圣殿。朝圣者分為八個“族”,分別對應各自村落的起源:分別是保卡坦博族、曲斯皮坎奇族、坎特斯族、阿科馬約族、帕魯羅族、塔萬廷蘇尤族、安塔族、烏魯班巴族。朝圣活動的內容包括人們舉著十字架沿白雪皚皚的山峰竭力爬行,以及持續24小時的朝圣。在此過程中,保卡坦博族和曲斯皮坎奇族的人們抬著塔揚卡尼之主和哭泣的童貞圣母像,前往塔揚卡尼村迎接第一縷陽光。舞蹈在朝圣中起著核心作用:上百種不同的舞蹈表演代表著不同的“族”。朝圣民族理事會和雪星之主兄弟會指導朝圣活動,制定規則和行為準則,并負責提供食物,而“烏庫庫”穿戴著羊駝毛制作的服裝和羊毛編織的動物面具負責維持秩序。朝圣包含了多種多樣的文化表現形式,并為來自安第斯山脈不同海拔高度、從事不同經濟活動的社區提供了集會場所。

編輯:朱穎
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